Declaration of Independence was drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776. The document expressed the minds and hearts of the American people. The Declaration basically states “All men are created equal and there are certain unalienable rights that governments should never violate. These rights include the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” It also states that if the Government fails to protect those rights, it is not only the right, but also the duty of the people to overthrow that government.
Thomas Jefferson was born at Shadwell on Apr. 13, 1743. Jefferson played a big role in preparing the Declaration of Independence which made him internationally famous. Returning to Virginia late in 1776, Jefferson served until 1779 in the House of Delegates. His bill to create a free system of tax-supported elementary education for all except slaves was defeated just like his bills to create a public library. In the last 17 years of his life, Jefferson accomplished the founding of the University of Virginia at Charlottesville in 1819.
Thomas Paine believed that government's only purpose as to protect life, liberty and property. On January 29, 1737, Thomas Paine was born in Thetford, England. Jefferson’s father had great visions for his son but when Jefferson turned twelve he failed out of school. He had spent his young life at sea but then became tax officer in England ending his adventure. In 1791-92, he wrote The Rights of Man in response to criticism of the French Revolution. This caused Paine to be labeled an outlaw in England for his anti-monarchist views. It also almost got him arrested but he ran to France to join the National Convention. Paine thought that many problems were mixing his politic views with his religious ones.
Mary Wollstonecraft was born April 27, 1759. Wollstonecraft believed in equal rights for woman she was an inspiration for the nineteenth-century and twentieth-century woman's movements. Wollstonecraft had a rough childhood since hr father was an alcoholic and many times she tried to protect her mother and herself from him. She was a self educated young woman she also supported herself as a lady's companion, seamstress, governess, and schoolteacher. According to Historical society “1792 Wollstonecraft moved to France to observe and write a book about the French Revolution. During part of her residence in France she became the common-law wife of the American writer and adventurer Gilbert Imlay, who some years later abandoned her, causing her to go through a period of despair.” Wollstonecraft died September 10, 1797 giving birth to Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley.
Cesare Bonesana Marchese di Beccaria was born 1738. Beccaria was an eighteenth-century Italian philosopher of law and economics. His education began at the Jesuit College in Parma and ended with his graduation from the University of Pavia in 1758. He did not believe in religion he only curtsied it because he only believed in justice by law. Beccaria died 1794.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was born on June 28, 1712 in Geneva, Switzerland His mother died after his birth. Rousseau left Geneva at 16, wandering from place to place, finally moving to Paris in 1742. During this time he earned his living working as everything from footman to assistant to an ambassador. He concentrated mainly on modern philosophy. According to history.com “Rousseau's general philosophy tried to grasp an emotional and passionate side of man which he felt was left out of most previous philosophical thinking.” Rousseau influenced many modern educational theories he believed on learning by experience.
|I wrote this essay for my US History class...=)|